Alexander Jech is a faculty member in the Department of Philosophy. He received his Ph. His research interests include ethics, social and political philosophy, Russian literature and the French Revolution.
Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited. Historical and Contemporary Realities Summary and Keywords Throughout the nearly fifteen centuries of Muslim-Christian encounter, individual adherents of both traditions often have lived peaceably with each other.
At the same time, Muslim expansion into Christian territories and Christian imperialism in Muslims lands have fostered fear and ill-will on both sides. Repercussions from the Crusades continue to resound in the contemporary rhetoric employed by defenders of both faiths. In recent years relations between Muslims and Christians across the globe have become increasingly polarized, fanned by anti-Islamic rhetoric and fearmongering.
Old sectarian rivalries play out with serious consequences for minority groups, both Christian and Muslim. Conflicts in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere for much of the 20th century were often labeled as ethnic, political, or ideological perpetuations of long-standing struggles over land, power, and influence.
These conflicts now tend to be labeled in accord with the specifically religious affiliation of their participants.
It is difficult to imagine a time in history at which there is greater need for serious interfaith engagement than now. It is also important to understand the ways in which members of the two communities experience each other in specific areas of the world today, including the United States, taking note of efforts currently underway to advance interfaith understanding and cooperation.
The events of September 11,and the resulting American invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, have led to ugly commentary reminiscent of medieval hyperbole. Right-wing evangelical rhetoric in the United States against Islam has been fueled by incidents of international terrorism involving Muslims, while the well-funded Islamophobia industry in the United States has been producing and distributing large amounts of anti-Muslim material.
American Muslims want to exercise their constitutional rights to free speech in expressing their objection to certain American foreign policies, at the same time that they fear the consequences of the Patriot Act and other acts they view as assaults on their civil liberties.
Meanwhile other Americans are struggling to understand that the Muslims with whom they interact in businesses, schools, and neighborhoods are different from the Muslim extremists who are calling for ever more dire measures against the United States. This is the general context in which Christian-Muslim dialogue is now taking place and to which it must address itself if it is to be effective.
Political resistance to the Prophet Muhammad created a series of conflicts resulting in the crystallization of Islam into its own separate religion and identity.
Theological differences were articulated early and have continued throughout history to present major challenges to interfaith relationships. The Persian Sassanian and the Greek Byzantine Empires were exhausted after many years of struggle, and Islam was able to occupy what amounted to a power vacuum in many of the areas to which it spread.
Military expeditions were political in nature and not undertaken for the purpose of forcing conversion to Islam.
Oxford studies in philosophy of religion essay prize ao klassifikation beispiel essay raisin in the sun essay analysis pleasantville essay themes and issues. Sullivan, Meghan. “Semantics for Blasphemy.” Oxford Studies in Philosophy of rutadeltambor.com4(), pp. Finalist for the Younger Scholars Prize in Philosophical Theology. Meghan Sullivan 3 Book Reviews 1. Review of The Practice of Catholic Theology by Paul Giﬃths. Meghan Sullivan: Curriculum Vitae. The Fall and Hypertime: Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Jonathan Kvanvig, ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, ): "Omnipresence" received the Excellence in Philosophy of Religion Prize from the St Thomas Philosophy of Religion Project and the John Templeton Foundation.
Dhimmis had the right to practice their religion in private and to govern their own communities. Special dress was required and new church buildings could not be constructed. The Christian church as a whole was divided into five apostolic sects at the beginning of Islam, located in Rome, Antioch, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Alexandria.
The resulting sectarian divisions had significant consequences for the spread of Islam. Many oriental Christians actually welcomed Muslim political authority as a relief from Byzantine oversight, and they cooperated with their new Muslim rulers.
From the beginning Christians were nervous about the growth of a new religion that they saw as a Christian heresy and which invaded and took over many of their lands. Certain periods in world history reflected harmonious interactions among the three Abrahamic faiths.
Medieval Andalusia, for example, provided a venue for Muslims and Christians, along with Jews, to live in proximity and even mutual appreciation. It was a time of great opulence and achievement, and social intercourse at the upper levels was easy.
It was also a period during which a number of Christians chose to convert to Islam. Medieval Andalusia has often been cited as an ideal place and time of interfaith harmony.
To some extent that claim may be justified.
If so, however, it was fairly short and was soon supplanted by the tensions, prejudices, and ill treatment of minorities by both Muslims and Christians that more often have characterized relationships between the communities. Other encounters, such as those experienced through the centuries of the Crusades, have left both Christians and Muslims bitter and angry.
The question of sovereignty over the city of Jerusalem remained an ongoing issue. Many complex factors went into the call of Pope Urban II for a crusade against Muslims inprimary among them the recapture of Jerusalem for Christianity.
Religious zeal carried Christian forces well into Muslim territories, and early efforts actually led to the capture of the prize of Jerusalem, which they held for some years. Western Christians, generally ignorant of the lands of the East, whether Christian or Muslim, vented their ire against their Eastern Christian brethren almost as much as toward Muslims.
The two centuries in which Christians occupied Palestine witnessed a constant pattern of shifting alliances. The Crusades lasted for several centuries, ending finally in victory for Islam. By the close of the Middle Ages hostilities between Islam and Western Christendom once again were intense, with active warfare for several centuries.
A number of events served as a kind of transition from the Middle Ages to a new era of international engagement. The fall of Constantinople in the middle of the 15th century and the final expulsion of Muslims from Andalusia at the end of that century illustrate this transition.The Philsoc Student Essay Prize.
Philsoc instituted this essay competition in the Hilary term Its objective is to promote a serious interest in philosophy and to encourage and stimulate students participating in Oxford University's Department of Continuing Education (OUDCE) philosophy on-line courses, weekly attended classes and summer schools (OUSSA).
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The Fall and Hypertime: Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Jonathan Kvanvig, ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, ): "Omnipresence" received the Excellence in Philosophy of Religion Prize from the St Thomas Philosophy of Religion Project and the John Templeton Foundation.
Field of Study Exam Reading List Collections. BS = Simon Blackburn and Keith Simmons. Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, M3 = A. P.
Martinich. This essay examines how Protestant natural philosophers incorporated theology into their study of nature. It focuses in particular on the impact of Lutheran beliefs, which have tended to receive less attention than seventeenth-century British Puritanism.
After a brief discussion of changing historical ideas about Protestantism and science, it examines the specific ways in which Protestant.
The prize essay will be recommended for publication in an upcoming special issue of the philosophical journal Pragmatism Today on somaesthetics. Submissions should be between 6, and 9, words in length, including notes and references, and should be e-mailed in Word format to [email protected]